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CAROLINE COUNTY, VIRGINIA FREE BLACK COMMUNITY, 1733-1874 Abstracted by Kimberly Curtis Campbell, 2018, 8"x11" format, 239 pages, index.

Table of Contents:
Caroline County Personal Property Tax List-           1
1850 U. S. Federal Census-                                     46
1860 U. S. Federal Census-                                     92
Caroline County Marriage Bonds, 1777-1853-     142
Caroline County Marriage Records, 1854-1868-  146
Caroline County Birth Records, 1853-1865-         154
Caroline County Death Records, 1853-1865-       163
Information from Other Sources-                          168
Index-                                                                     201

From the Preface:
        One evening, having finished indexing a manuscript about the lost wills for Caroline County, my curiosity led me to examine the 1850 through 1870 Federal Census records. Having always been careful to record any information on the enslaved community, I had recently seen a register for another county of its free black residents which was the catalyst for my curiosity. No such register is known to exist for this county, so I went through page after page of the census records looking for Caroline’s free black residents.
        What a surprise! I expected to find a few isolated individuals, but there existed a large number of people all across the county. This led to more searching in many other records and I knew exactly what my next book would be!
        The documents revealed two lawyers, a woman who owned and ran her own house of private entertainment, [which is a place to eat, drink, play cards, billiards or other legal games of entertainment], a gentleman who was a steamship captain, who ran the ferry at Port Royal, along with owning a store and having a freight hauling company. There were blacksmiths, brick masons, shoemakers, carpenters along with the farmers, laborers and ditchers. This does not mean to say that these were not hard and difficult times, they were. It gave me so much hope, until I started searching the 1870 Federal Census. Whether you were a long time free individual or newly freed, the majority of the county residents were in difficult circumstances. The aftermath of the war leveled everything for everyone and occupations were for the most part farmer or laborer for all.
        I can only imagine the courage, determination and perseverance it took to continue into the future. Continue they did, with the election and appointment of the first African-American county officials. Eventually many descendants spread to all sections of the country.
        It is my hope that many who are looking for their African-American families will find them with the help of this work. Some of the records notated if an individual was a free black, but many did not. Working with the records I eventually came to recognize the free individuals and gathered anything that obviously was related to them. If you do find your family line here please look for additional records as I am confident more information will be found in the future.
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COHABITATION LISTS OF FORMER SLAVES IN GOOCHLAND, HANOVER, AND LOUISA COUNTIES, VIRGINIA, AS RECORDED BY THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU Transcribed by Janice Abercrombie, 2002, 8"x11" format, 140 pages, index.In February, 1866 the General Assembly passed an act that called for the registration of marriages of former slaves who wished to have their unions recorded This fell under the jurisdiction of the Freedmen's Bureau. These lists provide an unparalleled window into the patterns of slave marriages. For example, in the Hanover list, in addition to the ages and full names of husband and wife, it records the date and place of marriage, the couple's places of birth and residence, marital status (single or widowed), and husband's occupation. The Goochland and Louisa lists record similar date in most cases.
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FREE BLACKS OF LOUISA COUNTY, VA: BONDS, WILLS & OTHER RECORDS transcribed by Janice Luck Abercrombie. 1993, vi, 193 pages, index. Ms. Abercrombie pulls together in this volume records on free blacks in Louisa, drawing from a number of sources as early as wills in the 1780s and records of free blacks during the Civil War. An important volume for black researchers and social historians interested in this aspect of Virginia's rich cultural history.
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FREE BLACKS ON THE WINCHESTER CITY, VIRGINIA PERSONAL PROPERTY TAX LISTS, 1789-1862
compiled by Joy MacDonald, 2013.11x8 1/2, vi, 377 pages. Paperback; printed on acid-free stock.

The author has abstracted the information for free African-Americans in Winchester City, Virginia and has arranged them into seven categories:
Year;
last name;
first name;
age;
occupation [only given infrequently on the rolls];
property description & value;
memo [oftentimes describing the exact location of the taxpayer or his former owners if freed in recent decades].

This volume is provided in three separate arrangements to facilitate genealogical research by African-American families; 1) chronologically by year; 2) sorted by last name of the individual; and 3) sorted by first name.

A similar volume is available for Frederick County, which was taxed separately from the city of Winchester

Information recorded in Virginia personal property tax records provide a wealth of information regarding the social status of an individual. The early laws required the tax commissioner in each district to record in "a fair alphabetical list" the names of the person chargeable with the tax, the names of white male tithables over the age of twenty-one, the number of white male tithables between ages sixteen and twenty-one, the number of slaves both above and below age sixteen, various types of animals such as horses and cattle, carriage wheels, ordinary licenses, and even billiard tables. Free Negroes are listed by name and often denoted in the list as "free" or "FN." By the 1850s, the personal property tax records contained detailed descriptions of personal property owned.

The most frequent use of personal property tax records is for the direct information recorded: name of the property owner, type and quantity of property owned, and amount of tax paid. Comparative analysis of personal property tax records from year to year may lead to conclusions about social, economic, and agricultural history, as well as the status of certain individuals or groups of property owners within a locality.

For genealogical researchers, personal property tax records may provide important data. Individuals with the same names in a locality may be distinguished by a junior or senior, or residence (often listed by street). Parentage may be expressly or implicitly stated by either the name or number of male tithables between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one in the household of the taxpayer. The names of women appear occasionally when owning property in their own right or as the widow of a property owner. By studying the lists from year to year, researchers may trace an ancestor to determine the date of departure from a locality, or possibly the year of death. The name of a taxpayer will continue on the tax list, noted as "deceased" or "estate," until the estate is settled.
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FREE BLACKS ON THE WARREN COUNTY, VIRGINIA PERSONAL PROPERTY TAX LISTS, 1836-1862
compiled by Joy MacDonald, 2015.11x8 1/2, vi, 216 pages. Paperback; printed on acid-free stock.

The author has abstracted the information for free African-Americans in Warren County, Virginia and has arranged them into seven categories:
Year;
last name;
first name;
age;
occupation [only given infrequently on the rolls];
property description & value;
memo [oftentimes describing the exact location of the taxpayer or his former owners if freed in recent decades].

This volume is provided in three separate arrangements to facilitate genealogical research by African-American families; 1) chronologically by year; 2) sorted by last name of the individual; and 3) sorted by first name.

Similar volumes are available for Clarke County, Frederick County and the City of Winchester

Information recorded in Virginia personal property tax records provide a wealth of information regarding the social status of an individual. The early laws required the tax commissioner in each district to record in "a fair alphabetical list" the names of the person chargeable with the tax, the names of white male tithables over the age of twenty-one, the number of white male tithables between ages sixteen and twenty-one, the number of slaves both above and below age sixteen, various types of animals such as horses and cattle, carriage wheels, ordinary licenses, and even billiard tables. Free Negroes are listed by name and often denoted in the list as "free" or "FN." By the 1850s, the personal property tax records contained detailed descriptions of personal property owned.

The most frequent use of personal property tax records is for the direct information recorded: name of the property owner, type and quantity of property owned, and amount of tax paid. Comparative analysis of personal property tax records from year to year may lead to conclusions about social, economic, and agricultural history, as well as the status of certain individuals or groups of property owners within a locality.

For genealogical researchers, personal property tax records may provide important data. Individuals with the same names in a locality may be distinguished by a junior or senior, or residence (often listed by street). Parentage may be expressly or implicitly stated by either the name or number of male tithables between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one in the household of the taxpayer. The names of women appear occasionally when owning property in their own right or as the widow of a property owner. By studying the lists from year to year, researchers may trace an ancestor to determine the date of departure from a locality, or possibly the year of death. The name of a taxpayer will continue on the tax list, noted as "deceased" or "estate," until the estate is settled.
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FREE BLACKS ON THE FREDERICK COUNTY, VIRGINIA PERSONAL PROPERTY TAX LISTS, 1793-1862
compiled by Joy MacDonald, 2011.11x8 1/2, vi, 359 pages. Paperback; printed on acid-free stock.

The author has abstracted the information for free African-Americans in Frederick County, Virginia and has arranged them into nine categories:
Year;
last name;
first name;
age;
occupation [only given infrequently on the rolls];
spouse [infrequent];
property description & value;
district in which taxpayer resided;
notes [oftentimes describing the exact location of the taxpayer or his former owners if freed in recent decades].

This volume is provided in three separate arrangements to facilitate genealogical research by African-American families; 1) chronologically by year; 2) sorted by last name of the individual; and 3) sorted by first name.

A similar volume is in preparation for the town of Winchester, which was taxed separately from Frederick County.

Information recorded in Virginia personal property tax records provide a wealth of information regarding the social status of an individual. The early laws required the tax commissioner in each district to record in "a fair alphabetical list" the names of the person chargeable with the tax, the names of white male tithables over the age of twenty-one, the number of white male tithables between ages sixteen and twenty-one, the number of slaves both above and below age sixteen, various types of animals such as horses and cattle, carriage wheels, ordinary licenses, and even billiard tables. Free Negroes are listed by name and often denoted in the list as "free" or "FN." By the 1850s, the personal property tax records contained detailed descriptions of personal property owned.

The most frequent use of personal property tax records is for the direct information recorded: name of the property owner, type and quantity of property owned, and amount of tax paid. Comparative analysis of personal property tax records from year to year may lead to conclusions about social, economic, and agricultural history, as well as the status of certain individuals or groups of property owners within a locality.

For genealogical researchers, personal property tax records may provide important data. Individuals with the same names in a locality may be distinguished by a junior or senior, residence in different tax districts, or geographical location. Parentage may be expressly or implicitly stated by either the name or number of male tithables between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one in the household of the taxpayer. The names of women appear occasionally when owning property in their own right or as the widow of a property owner. By studying the lists from year to year, researchers may trace an ancestor to determine the date of departure from a locality, or possibly the year of death. The name of a taxpayer will continue on the tax list, noted as "deceased" or "estate," until the estate is settled.

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LANCASTER COUNTY VIRGINIA REGISTER OF FREE NEGROES 1806-1860 Brigitte Burkett, 8"x 11" format, 24 pages, index. A transcription of the Lancaster County, Virginia Register of Free Negroes, recorded by the Lancaster County clerk between the years 1803-1860. The register is now in possession of the Manuscripts Division of the Virginia State Library and Archives, Richmond, Virginia. The format of the original dates has been altered for uniformity of presentation. All names have been spelled as in the original.
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THE FOLLOWING THREE VOLUMES CONTAIN SEVERAL THOUSAND SLAVES AND SLAVEOWNERS REFERENCES; SEE THE INDIVIDUAL INDICES LISTED BELOW.

LOUDOUN COUNTY, VIRGINIA TITHABLES, 1758-1786 by Marty Hiatt & Craig Roberts Scott. 1994,2011. 3 volumes, 1568 pages (8½x11), index. A full and faithful transcription of the tithable records of this most important Northern Neck County. A must for any eighteenth-century researcher in the Northern Neck area.
To view a digital copy of the index to volume 1 of this book, visit Index-Ldtt-v1
N.B: each index contains the names of slaveowners, with their slaves' names, followed by a general index
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To view a digital copy of the index to volume 2 of this book, visit Index-Ldtt-v2
N.B: each index contains the names of slaveowners, with their slaves' names, followed by a general index
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To view a digital copy of the index to volume 3 of this book, visit Index-Ldtt-v3
N.B: each index contains the names of slaveowners, with their slaves' names, followed by a general index
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BUCKINGHAM CO., VA RECORDS EXTRACTED FROM THE BUREAU OF REFUGEES, FREEDMEN AND ABANDONED LANDS [RECORD GROUP 105] transcribed and annotated by Jeanne Stinson. (ELECTRONIC VERSION [PDF]) In the aftermath of the Civil War, citizens of Buckingham, both black and white, were coping with the new reality of Confederate defeat, occupation, and freedom for thousands of former slaves. The government's introduction of the "Freedmen's Bureau" sought to ameliorate the plight of the newest black citizens. Included among the records are a miscellany of documents, many dealing with both black and white Buckingham residents. Among these are: oaths of allegiance, complaints by former slaves in dispute with their former masters; regulations; agreements between parties for work [including tenant farmer contracts]; lists of former Confederate soldiers being sought by the federal government; lists of former slave owners who had not taken the oath of amnesty; general orders and circulars; orders to disarm the public; ration allocations; and a number of other miscellany. The records are rich with names of those Buckingham people trying to reorder their lives during 1866 and 1867.
The electronic document is fully searchable
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BUCKINGHAM CO., VA 1902 COUNTY VOTERS REGISTRATION BOOK by Jeanne Stinson, 2003. 11 x 8 1/2, viii, 75 pages. The author has transcribed the voters registration sheets for each of the county's voting precincts at the beginning of the 1900s. Included in the data is the precinct, name of each voters, their date of birth, age, occupation, residence within the county, years lived in Buckingham Co., years lived in that particular district, and any military service they might have had. This is a valuable data base for both white and African-American genealogists searching their roots.
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WASHINGTON CO. VIRGINIA DESIGNATED "COLORED" MARRIAGES, 1853-1881 Originally published by Thomas Jack Hockett & Shelia Steele Hunt, 2002; reprint, 2007. 8x10, iv, 82 pages. A careful transcription of the original records drawn from the Washington County marriage records. A complete 17-page index of all names is included
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